The beauty of the earth lies not only in the civilization created by human beings, but also in the diversity and richness brought by other creatures. Yet every year, 13 million hectares of forest are lost; 1/4 of mammals, 1/8 of birds and 1/3 of amphibians face extinction; species die at a rate 1,000 times faster than their natural reproduction. It cannot be said that this is the outcome of our own creation, but it is a reality that we must face up to. You and I, as individuals, cannot come up with a solution to the biodiversity crisis, but the solution exists precisely among the 6.8 billion you and me. The only thing we can rely on is human awakening, immediate action and unremitting efforts. The good news is that we have awakened and we are taking action. How does the ecological eye promise a future for biodiversity? Cao Jun When it comes to biodiversity, everyone seems to understand it, but they don't quite understand it. Most of them have only a limited understanding. Many institutions and organizations are paying attention, but in actual decision-making, its status is not obvious enough. Biodiversity conservation has become a topic that seems to be close in concept but far away in action. Why is this so? Fundamentally speaking, the essence of biodiversity conservation is still the relationship between conservation and development. Near, comes from the urgency of protection needs; far, because of the urgency of development needs to be taken into account. In the game between the two, how to make biodiversity a future? The answer is in our hands, we need to protect it with a sense of historical responsibility, and we need to act with a sense of mission to protect. Biodiversity conservation, the concept is close at hand. Because the situation is very serious, no action, no. There is a set of data: 20% of the world's population consumes 80% of the earth's resources; 13 million hectares of forests disappear every year; 1/4 of mammals, 1/8 of birds and 1/3 of amphibians face extinction; 3/ 4 fisheries are depleted, abandoned or at risk of declining yields; species are dying 1,000 times faster than they would naturally reproduce. Not to be alarmist, this is the environment in which we live, and the reality that we must face up to. Reality is worth reflecting on. As one of the millions of life on earth, as the top species on earth, human beings are using its 200,000-year history to destroy the wealth accumulated by the earth for 4 billion years. It cannot be said that these are the results of our own creation, but the forces of nature and our actions are feeding back to human beings in various ways. We used to think that these feedbacks were far away, but the facts of recent years have made us less comfortable. The death of coral reefs, large mudslides, unusual floods, persistent droughts, and disasters in many places are hitting record highs. Whether due to human disturbance or natural functioning, the effects are interconnected, from entire ecosystems to all types of life in the system, including humans, of course. Biodiversity conservation, action seems far away. Compared with the immediate benefits of development, biodiversity seems remote, irrelevant to the present, and its future is almost unknown. To develop, it is impossible not to have resources. If resources are needed, biodiversity will be affected. This is an unavoidable and unavoidable problem in development. In fact, it is not scary to ask for resources. What is scary is our limited cognition and short-sighted vision, as well as the development model guided by the concept of quick success and instant benefit. As one of millions of species, it is very difficult or even impossible for humans to understand the entire nature. Data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature shows that at present, scientists can only identify nearly 2 million of the world's 5 to 30 million species, which means that a large number of species may have quietly disappeared without ever being acquainted with humans. As for the disappearance of species, it is even more invisible, intangible, or even known. As for the impact of its disappearance, it is difficult for people to predict, and they have little energy to worry about. Compared with the vagueness of cognition, what is more serious is our once short-sightedness. If people could have self-awareness, and then act cautiously and think twice, the situation of biodiversity loss may not be as severe as it is today. But in reality, the limitations of cognition have not achieved people's own prudence, but have given birth to the development concept of quick success for a long time, as well as the endless human interference that follows. Even if some hydropower stations have an impact on fish migration and spawning, they are still successfully launched;Some tidal flats and wetlands are still reclaimed even if they have an impact on the migration of migratory birds. In the minds of some decision makers, compared with immediate economic interests and development needs, biodiversity protection is often in conflict with or even contradicts immediate interests, and protection is difficult to achieve political achievements and results. As a result, they make understandable but inappropriate decisions. Let’s look at a set of data: In my country, virgin forests have long been affected by human activities such as deforestation and deforestation, and their area is decreasing at a rate of 5,000 square kilometers per year; The degraded area is 870,000 square kilometers; among the 640 world-endangered species listed in the "Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora", my country accounts for 156 species, about 1/4 of the total. However, our large-scale engineering construction, such as cities, dams, roads, and reclamation, has brought about the impact of habitat fragmentation and islandization on species, which cannot be considered. In the face of reality, we need to wake up. The good news is that we are already working hard and we are taking action. Many places have already taken concrete steps to formulate conservation plans, conduct species censuses, build a network of nature reserves, and incorporate biodiversity conservation concepts into land planning and performance appraisals. These progress are worthy of full recognition. But if you want to pull money from the bottom of the pile, you have to coordinate the concepts of protection and development. Human beings are members of nature and cannot be above all things to construct the natural order. What we should do most is to face up to the limitations of our cognition, get rid of short-sightedness, and change passive interference into active protection with a state of reverence for nature and a high sense of historical responsibility and mission. Once upon a time, our unconscious actions brought an unbearable burden to the biological world. Therefore, we must start from the present, fear life, respect nature, and stop letting biodiversity be destroyed by our conscious actions. Even if the immediate effect is hard to see, even if there is no political achievement, the mission of history will make what we do eternal. China-EU Biodiversity Project in International Cooperation Has Achieved Fruitful Results in Five Years Project Action Brings Sustainable Impact Chinese Environmental Trainee Reporter Zhao Na The China-EU Biodiversity Project (hereinafter referred to as "China-EU Project") results exchange meeting was recently held in Beijing. The China-EU project is jointly initiated by the European Union, the Ministry of Commerce, the United Nations Development Programme and the Ministry of Environmental Protection. It is currently the largest overseas biodiversity conservation project funded by the European Union. The project, with a total funding of EUR 51 million, started in June 2005 and will end in September 2011. This project aims to strengthen sustainable management of biodiversity in China and protect China's unique ecosystems. Zhuang Guotai, director of the Department of Natural Ecological Protection of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and director of the China-EU project, said at the exchange meeting that the China-EU project mainly includes three parts: strengthening policy and institutional capacity at the central level, conducting demonstrations at the local level, and carrying out biodiversity publicity and education. After 5 years of implementation, the China-EU project has achieved more than 50 landmark achievements in 12 fields, which have had a profound impact, brought about positive changes, and made important contributions to promoting the effective conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in China . Strengthen policy and institutional capacity building to promote the mainstreaming of biodiversity The China-EU project has promoted the formulation and implementation of biodiversity-related plans, and this action is one of them. It defines China's strategic thinking, goals and tasks and priority actions for biodiversity conservation in the next 20 years. At present, one of the main problems of biodiversity conservation in my country is that the legal and policy system is not perfect. The Sino-European project has carried out the work of "Assessment of Biodiversity-Related Policies, Laws and Regulations in China" and "Research on Priority Actions for Improving Biodiversity-related Laws and Policies in China", and promoted the construction of biodiversity-related policies and regulations at all levels in China. Up to now, 46 policies and regulations have been approved and implemented by the State Council, local governments at all levels, people's congresses or departments, and 27 have been submitted for approval. With the support of the China-Europe project, the Ministry of Environmental Protection has included biodiversity in the national key industrial development strategy environmental impact assessment for the first time in China, and compiled relevant operating guidelines, which has effectively promoted the mainstreaming of biodiversity in China. The Sino-European project has also strengthened China's biodiversity-related capacity building, adding the Ministry of Water Resources and the Ministry of Land and Resources as new members of the implementation coordination group. In Anqing City, Anhui Province, Sino-European Project supported the establishment of the "Biodiversity Management Office", which has become a permanent institution to ensure the sustainability of project concepts, methods and technologies. Introduced the concept of "national park" in Yunnan Province, established "Lijiang Laojunshan National Park" with the main purpose of biodiversity conservation in Laojun Mountain and Meili Snow Mountain, and established a management office. With the support of the Sino-European project, the Ministry of Land and Resources has carried out pilot projects in Hainan and Guizhou provinces to incorporate biodiversity into land use and land consolidation planning. Liu Xitao, director of the Land Consolidation Center of the Ministry of Land and Resources, said: "In the future, the Ministry of Land and Resources will continue to promote the research and application of biodiversity conservation in the field of land management, and focus on cutting-edge fields such as ecological environment, climate change, low-carbon development and land management. Actively explore.” The 18 demonstration projects cover the extensive establishment and innovation of scalable mechanisms. The 18 local demonstration projects of the China-Europe project cover the western, central and southern provinces of China, and the implementation of the project has strengthened coordination among biodiversity-related departments in these regions. cooperate with. The Sino-European project supported Chongqing, Guangxi, Lhasa, Xinyang, Hulunbuir and other regions to formulate the Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan, 3 of which have been approved for implementation. In addition, the project also supported the preparation of 18 special plans for local biodiversity conservation, of which 15 have been approved for implementation. The EU-China project has also facilitated the process of integrating biodiversity into local 5-year plans. The statistical results of the local 12th Five-Year Plan outlines show that in the regions where the China-EU project has been implemented, 85.7% of the 12th Among the regions, only 16.7% of the 12th Five-Year Plan outlines included biodiversity. With the support of the Sino-European project, the governments of Anqing and Chongqing in Anhui Province have formulated a series of feasible assessment indicators, and for the first time have included biodiversity conservation indicators in the performance assessment system of government officials. Chen Shengliang, director of the Natural Ecological Protection Department of the Chongqing Environmental Protection Bureau, said that Chongqing has incorporated biodiversity indicators into the environmental performance assessment of the "top leaders" of party and government cadres. The Sino-European project has also made many breakthrough attempts in ecological compensation related to biodiversity. For example, Yulong County in Yunnan Province compensates farmers for the loss of wild vegetation resources that are forbidden to use; in the limestone area of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, residents are forbidden to use woodcutters to compensate for the additional expenses of using other fuels. Among them, Ganzi County, Sichuan Province, for the first time in China, introduced funds from local monasteries into the Human-Animal Conflict Compensation Fund. The China-EU project also has the courage to explore new models of biodiversity conservation, one of which is the combination of biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. For example, by establishing special village committees in Sichuan to carry out standardized management of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, it not only realizes the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity, but also increases the income of community residents. Carrying out publicity and education on biodiversity requires raising awareness of conservation in a severe situation. The China-EU Project has done a lot of publicity activities in raising awareness of biodiversity, and achieved good results in publicity and education. The Sino-European project provides biodiversity education to 30,000 "green schools" in China, and also provides a large number of publicity and educational materials in minority languages for ethnic minorities. "Our goal is to improve the status quo of biodiversity conservation by changing people's behavior," said John Ma Jingneng, director of the publicity and education sub-project of the China-Europe Project. At present, my country's biodiversity conservation has achieved positive results. However, Dr. Ma Jingneng said at the exchange meeting: "China's biodiversity resources are extremely rich, but it also faces serious threats. The survey found that the vast majority of the surveyed groups have very limited awareness of biodiversity, and a general lack of awareness of biodiversity. The value of biodiversity and its understanding of its importance to China's social and economic development. Cui Shuhong, deputy director of the Environmental Impact Assessment Department of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, believes that my country's biodiversity protection is still facing severe challenges, the main problems are over-exploitation of resources, environmental pollution Habitat destruction caused by development and construction, genetic diversity is threatened due to a single planting species, and the loss of biodiversity is accelerated due to the invasion of alien species. According to relevant sources, my country will continue to strengthen the protection and sustainable use of biodiversity. Basic survey and monitoring of biodiversity, in situ and ex situ conservation of biodiversity, and demonstration of cross-regional ecological corridor construction for biodiversity conservation, etc. Although the China-Europe project is nearing completion, its impact is far-reaching, lasting.For example, in terms of funding, the EU's investment has played a seed role, driving domestic governments at all levels, international organizations, other countries, non-governmental organizations and enterprises to invest in biodiversity conservation. According to incomplete statistics, the cumulative matching investment of all parties is close to 30 million US dollars. This confirms the theme of the exchange meeting: "Action. Impact. Change; Sustainability". Local practice and active protection allow Sanqin to keep the pure land. Shaanxi has built 55 nature reserves, accounting for 5.52% of the province's area. Chinese environmental reporter Feng Yongqiang trainee reporter Xiao Ying Shaanxi Province is an important province of biological resources in the west and the vanguard of the western development. In recent years, Shaanxi Province has actively explored, innovated the system and mechanism of biodiversity protection, and improved the means of biodiversity protection, and has gradually embarked on a path of ecological civilization in which economic development and biodiversity protection coexist in harmony. Find out the family background and plan ahead Shaanxi Province can be divided into three landform areas: the northern Shaanxi plateau, the Guanzhong plain and the Qinba mountains from north to south. Different climates and different terrains breed diverse ecological environments and biological populations. The Qinling Mountains, which are the climatic boundary between the north and the south of my country, are one of the regions rich in biological species resources in China and a refuge for many rare and endangered animals. In order to find out the family background, Shaanxi Province started from 2006 and lasted for 3 years, using a variety of advanced instruments and a large number of census personnel to carry out the province's species resources survey. Through the investigation, Shaanxi Province has basically found out the resources of wild terrestrial animals and plants, and compiled them into "Report on the Protection of Wild Relatives of Cultivated Plants and Relatives of Poultry and Livestock in Shaanxi Province" and "Report on the Investigation of Biological Species Resources in Shaanxi Province" . According to the survey, there are more than 3,300 kinds of wild seed plants in Bashan, Qinling Mountains, which is known as the "Biological Gene Bank", accounting for about 10% of the whole country. There are 30 kinds of rare plants and nearly 800 kinds of medicinal plants. There are more than 604 species of wild animals, 380 species of birds and 147 species of mammals, all accounting for 30% of the country's total; 77 species of amphibians and reptiles, accounting for 13% of the country's total. Among them, 69 species of rare animals, including giant panda, golden monkey, takin, crested ibis and other 12 species are listed as national first-class protected animals. Based on the identification of species resources, in 2008, Shaanxi Province organized the compilation of the "Shaanxi Province Biological Species Resource Protection and Utilization Plan", which carried out 12 aspects including the protection and utilization of biological species resources and the construction of the entry-exit inspection system for biological species resources. planning. Special Institution for Legal Guarantee The Qinling Mountains, known as the "Father Mountain" in Shaanxi Province, have also suffered damage from human activities while providing people with abundant resources. Some tourist attractions, playgrounds and real estate development projects are illegally constructed; in some places, the development of mineral resources is more chaotic; in some places, the environmental impact assessment is not strictly performed during road construction and construction, etc., resulting in the "sickness" of Qinling, who provides supplies for Shaanxi's children. . To this end, Shaanxi Province has successively promulgated a number of local regulations and rules, including the Outline of Shaanxi Qinling Ecological Environment Protection, the Ecological Protection Plan for the Northern Foot of Qinling Mountains, and the Regulations of Shaanxi Province Qinling Ecological Environment Protection. In particular, the "Qinling Ecological Environmental Protection Regulations of Shaanxi Province" is the only law in the country specially formulated for the ecological environmental protection and biodiversity protection of a mountain. support. In order to further protect the ecological environment of the Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province established the Qinling Ecological Environmental Protection Committee of Shaanxi Province in 2008, which is composed of various functional departments of the provincial government. , and put forward policy suggestions for Qinling ecological environment protection. Active actions for key protection Since my country established the first batch of national nature reserves with Taibai Mountain, the main peak of the Qinling Mountains as the core, in 1965, Shaanxi Province, in accordance with the principle of "combining key protection and general protection", has protected rare and endangered wild animals and plants. The habitats are under key protection, biodiversity protection functional areas are established, and a protection network system has been formed. Up to now, the total number of nature reserves in Shaanxi Province has reached 55, with a total area of 1.136 million hectares, accounting for 5.52% of the province's land area. Among them, there are 30 natural reserves in the Qinling area with an area of more than 600,000 hectares, accounting for the total area of the Qinling area. of 10.05%. It covers forest ecosystems, aquatic wildlife, natural relics, rare and endangered species and other types. After large-scale protection projects, especially the establishment of some protected areas, more rare and endangered wild animal and plant populations have been expanded. At present, the crested ibis has grown from 7 when it was discovered in 1981 to more than 1,000, and the endangered situation has been effectively alleviated. According to statistics from the third national giant panda survey, there are 273 giant pandas in Shaanxi Province, with a habitat area of 358,000 hectares, making it the region with the highest density distribution in the country. Shaanxi Province also pays attention to the ex situ conservation of species resources, including rescue and breeding centers, parks, breeding and breeding farms, and seedling seed bases. According to reports, Shaanxi currently has 3 animal breeding and rescue centers, two botanical gardens, 7 zoos, more than 300 wild animal breeding farms, and more than 40 giant salamander breeding farms (points). During the "Twelfth Five-Year Plan" period, Shaanxi Province will carry out the following actions: establish a joint meeting system for biodiversity conservation, organize the preparation of the "Shaanxi Provincial Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan", establish a database and information system for biological species resources, research and discuss biological Access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing systems, etc., to further promote the development and dissemination of biodiversity culture. Related news Hebei builds a network of protected areas China Environment News "By 2015, the number of nature reserves will reach 50, and the total area of nature reserves will reach 800,000 hectares. By then, Hebei Province will initially form a nature reserve with complete types and functions. Internet." The relevant person in charge of the Environmental Protection Department of Hebei Province told reporters. It is understood that up to now, Hebei Province has a total of 29 protected areas of forest, wildlife and wetland types, covering an area of 54.4 hectares, accounting for 2.9% of the province's land area. Among them, there are 7 at the national level, 18 at the provincial level, 1 at the municipal level, and 3 at the county level. These protected areas cover all typical ecosystem types in the province and protect 85% of the national key protected wild animal and plant species. Xu Junhua Zhou Yingjiu Knowledge Link What is biodiversity? Biodiversity is the ecological complex formed by organisms (animals, plants, microorganisms) and the environment and the sum total of various ecological processes related to it, including three levels of ecosystem, species and gene. May 22 is International Biodiversity Day, and this year's theme is "Forest Biodiversity". my country's biodiversity ranks eighth in the world and first in the northern hemisphere. There are many kinds of ecosystems in my country. Terrestrial ecosystems include 27 categories and 460 types including forests, shrubs, grasslands and savannas, meadows, deserts, alpine tundra, 5 categories of wetlands and freshwater waters, and 6 marine ecosystems in total. Large categories, 30 types. Our country is rich in species. There are 32,800 species of higher plants and about 104,500 species of animals. Due to the small impact of Quaternary glaciers, many ancient relic species are still preserved in my country. There are many domesticated species and their wild relatives in my country, and it is also one of the eight origin centers of cultivated plants in the world, with 237 cultivated species originating in my country. At present, my country has established 2,588 nature reserves of various types at various levels, with a total area of 1.49 million square kilometers, accounting for 14.9% of the land area. It has initially formed a national nature reserve with relatively complete types, relatively reasonable layout and relatively sound functions. network.